KUTRRH in partnership with the Society of Radiography in Kenya (SORK) to commemorate the World Radiography Day at KUTRRH on 11th KUTRRH in partnership with the Society of Radiography in Kenya (SORK) commemorated the World Radiography Day at KUTRRH 2023 with a walk, free breast and prostate screenings and awareness talks by medical specialists. Close to 200 Kenyans from all walks of life underwent breast ultrasound and prostate ultrasound procedures over that weekend.
Learn More about The Integrated Molecular Imaging Centre (IMIC)
World Radiography Day WRD is celebrated on 8th November yearly worldwide as an event to promote radiography history. Justification for WRD celebrations includes; educating and creating awareness of radiography to the public, Sensitizing the public on radiological procedures, and impacting the public with their rights and care while in the radiology facility as patients and or attendants. WRD 2023 theme as announced by the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) is: “Celebrating patient safety”
Historical events that lay a foundation for Radiography:
A significant discovery took place in 1895 when Professor Wilhelm K. Roentgen, a German physicist working was in his science laboratory with the cathode ray tube. The cathode ray tube (glass envelope) which had been evacuated air (vacuum) had positive and negative electrodes encapsulated in it. When the scientist tried to apply high voltages between the electrodes the tube produced a fluorescent glow. Roentgen went further and covered the tube with a heavy black paper. Upon application of the high voltage again, he noticed some glow on the photographic material a few feet away. This phenomenon amused the professor who concluded that a new kind of ray was being emitted from the tube. This is “A NEW KIND OF RAY” Prof. Roentgen asserted. Later scientists started the use of the phrase X-rays (unknown rays) which was then adopted and used up to date (X-rays).
Since the discovery of X-rays and subsequent discoveries of other electromagnetic energies, Radiography and Imaging practices have since been characterized by sophistication in equipment technology, improved technique, and diverse use of radiation such as in medicine, the industry, veterinary, forensic and research thanks to the technological advancement, innovations and renovations. The use of radiation at macro and molecular levels is a marvelous testimony of the extent radiation use has reached.
Radiography and Imaging services in our hospitals today are integral sectors in health care systems standing tall to provide real-time evidence-based diagnosis and or therapy of diseases. Out of the discovery of X-rays, cutting niche inventions have since been achieved such as the invention of the Computerized Tomography (C.T) scanner in 1972, Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner (MRI) in 1977, Ultrasound (1953), Gama Camera, Linear Accelerator and others have been celebrated and successfully used in our healthcare for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. Innovations in other related industries such as the film industry, photography, and radio-pharmacy have since grown comparatively.
It is on the basis of these milestone advancements that on 8th November annually and globally; the story must be retold to mark and commemorate the great discovery of x-rays. As Radiographers, indeed with all radiation users in the world, we celebrate Prof. Roentgen, and his family for being generous even to share the discovery without patenting it. Otherwise, radiographers wouldn’t study, use and apply the technology without his copyright authority today.
History of Radiography Training In Kenya
In 1951, the first class was started in Port Florence (present day, Kisumu City) with four (4) pioneer students: Jonah Wangila, John Okwanyo (who later became Member of Parliament for Migori and an Assistant Minister for Health in Kenya Government in the 1960s, 1970s, Peter Ngugi (x-ray Engineer), Rufus Kisia (Chief Radiographer, Kenyatta National Hospital).
The school could not have developed so rapidly without the pioneering work of Prof, Leslie Whittaker (Wake Me up for Barium Meal), Dr. Calder, Dr. Fred Muruka, and Dr. Salim Malik (Carotid Arteriography experts), Dr. Adamali (currently SORK patron), Dr. Salyani, Dr Onyango, Dr. P.P. Shah and many others and all whom were among the first founding Radiologists and lecturers and examiners for the Society of Radiographers (UK) course for the Kenyan school at the then faculty of Radiography (MTC) Nairobi.
The School Affiliation
The School of Radiography in Nairobi was affiliated with Middlesex Hospital and the Society of Radiographers of UK (SoR) in terms of curriculum, examinations, qualifications, and registration for practice in any Commonwealth country. MTC students were expected to choose between Diagnostic and Therapy Radiography after passing part I of the Diploma of the Society of Radiographers UK examination. Those therapy candidates were fully sponsored to undertake a 2-year therapy course in the UK. The school was the center of excellence for the training of diagnostic radiographers from English-speaking commonwealth countries in East and Central Africa.
Between 1960-1979, it admitted students from Zambia, Mauritius, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) had a school of Radiography but because of the apartheid-like system under Prime Minister Ian Smith, African students from (Rhodesia/Zimbabwe preferred coming to Kenya until 1980 when Zimbabwe became independent under comrade late Robert G. Mugabe. It is Kenyan Senior Tutors (Late Paul Odongo, Sammy Fondo, and others) from Kenya who went to these countries to set up Schools of Radiography under British Commonwealth sponsorships.
Fast forward… other historical events
From 1979 – 1989 The Ministry of Health Kenya, allowed the faculty/ KMTC to pull out (1979) of the affiliation with the Society of Radiographers (SoR) UK in total and sought a collaboration with the College of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, department of diagnostic radiology, University of Nairobi up to 1989. In 1991 KMTC became an independent state corporation through the Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC) Act 1990. Hence, the curriculum, and the qualifications had to be set as per the new KMTC statutes.
Training Radiography Today In Kenya
Radiography is both a science and the art of using ionizing and non-ionizing radiations for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Radiography has the following pathways:
1. Medical Radiography
- Diagnostic Radiography: Responsible for providing safe and accurate imaging examinations in a wide range of clinical environments using a variety of imaging modalities and techniques so that appropriate management and treatment of patients can proceed
- Therapeutic Radiography: Responsible for providing safe and accurate high-energy radiation treatments to patients with cancer and for patient’s physical and psychological well-being prior to, during, and following radiotherapy
Some areas of Specializations in medical radiography include
- Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning
- Interventional Radiography
- Radiotherapy and Oncology
- Radiation Dosimetry and treatment planning
- Nuclear Medicine/Molecular Imaging
- Research and radiography Education
2. Veterinary Radiography
Deals with the use of radiological and imaging equipment to achieve images of animals for purposes of diagnoses and treatment
3. Forensic Radiography
Is a discipline involving the use of radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matters of law. It therefore involves techniques of acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of radiological images for purposes of medical-legal investigations.
4. Industrial Radiography
This is a modality of non-destructive testing that uses ionizing radiations to inspect materials and components to objectively localize and quantify defects and degeneration in material properties that could lead to failure of engineering structures.
Radiography Training Institutions In Kenya
1. KMTC (Nairobi, Nyeri, Mombasa, Kisumu, Eldoret, Nakuru, Manza and Kapkatet) campuses
Diploma in Radiography and Imaging, 3 years
Higher Diploma ultrasound, 2 years
Higher Diploma therapy, 2 years
Higher Diploma in computerized tomography (CT) scanning, 2 years
Higher Diploma in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning, 2 years
2. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT)
BSc. Radiography (Diagnostic and therapeutic pathways), 4 years direct entry
BSc. For mature entry level for a diploma or higher diploma, 2 years
MSc. Radiography and disciplines (In offering)